The sacroiliac joint is located in the lower part of the back and joins the tail bone (sacrum) to one of the pelvic bones (ilium). There are two sacroiliac joints — one on either side of the spine. The sacroiliac joints act to transfer weight from the spine to the pelvis and allow a small amount of movement to occur.
During certain movements of the spine and hips, stretching or compressive forces are placed on the sacroiliac joints and surrounding ligaments. If these forces are excessive and beyond what the sacroiliac joint can withstand, injury to the sacroiliac joint may occur. This is known as sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
Sacroiliac joint dysfunction may occur from excessive forces being applied to the sacroiliac joint. This can be from bending, sitting, lifting, arching or twisting movements of the spine, or, from weight bearing forces associated with running or jumping. Injury to the sacroiliac joint may occur traumatically or due to repetitive or prolonged forces over time. The pelvic girdle changes associated with pregnancy may also contribute to the development of sacroiliac joint pain.
Physiotherapy treatment for sacroiliac joint dysfunction can hasten healing, ensure an optimal outcome and reduce the likelihood of future recurrence. Treatment may comprise: